We have taken into account the Spanish Institute for Disaster Reduction (IERD) definition and classification of risks, which defines them as those dangers of any magnitude and nature capable of causing serious damage to people, tangible and intangible assets. of humanity, or the natural environment.
Natural risks are understood to be those that, even without the human presence on Earth, would continue to happen, to be possible in the natural space.
On the other hand, technological risks are understood as those that are caused by manmade works, tools and products throughout humankind evolution.
Anthropic risks are understood as those that are caused by the very presence of humans and their behaviour.
We only show you the main natural and anthropic risks related to Blue and Safe Tourism associated with the coastal areas where the ZeroRisk2030 application is developed. It is greatly important to know these risks in order to be prepared for possible threats beforehand and to protect ourselves. We speak then of self-protection measures such as the set of actions aimed at protection, carried out by oneself, for oneself.
- Tsunami: Violent shaking of the waters of the sea as a result of a shaking of the ocean bottom, which sometimes spreads to the coasts, giving rise to floods.
- Slope movement: downward and outward movement of materials that form a slope under the influence of gravity, sometimes accompanied by other natural forces.
- Subsidence: progressive settlement or land subsidence which occurs as a consequence of the extraction or loss of fluids from the subsoil.
- Earthquake: Violent shaking of the Earth’s crust and mantle, caused by forces acting inside the Earth.
- Tsunami: A gigantic wave produced by an earthquake or a volcanic eruption at the bottom of the sea.
- Dynamic action of the sea: the swells are long waves/ tumultuous movement of large waves, generally under normal atmospheric conditions and caused by a storm in a distant place (swell, spring tides, rip current)
- Tropical cyclones: atmospheric disturbances of tropical origin and origin, occasionally reaching European lands across the Atlantic.
- Coastal erosion: Deterioration and transport of soil elements by the passage of water currents, winds and waves.
- Floods: Overflowing of water outside the normal confines of a river; flooding by water from drains, in areas that are not normally inundated.
- Heat Wave: invasion of very warm air that spreads over a wide territory.
- Tropospheric ozone: ozone levels increase in the lower layers of the atmosphere due to the reaction of unburned fuel emissions under the effect of solar radiation.
- Intense precipitation: an excessive amount of water from the atmosphere, and that, in solid or liquid form, is deposited on the Earth’s surface.
- Lightning: electrical discharge of natural origin that is generated inside of a cloud hitting the ground.
- Gales / Windstorms: strong wind blowing from the south, tending to the west.
- Natural Contamination: the one that generally does not produce considerable qualitative changes; volcanic eruptions with their gas and ash emissions, forest fires, salt-saturated seawater splashes, dust storms, the action of microorganisms, animal excretions and cosmic dust.
- Epidemics and pandemics: A disease that spreads for some time through a country, simultaneously affecting large numbers of people. In the case in which it spreads to many countries or attacks almost all individuals in a locality or region, it is considered a pandemic.
- Pests: Massive and sudden appearance of living beings of the same species that cause serious damage to animal or plant populations.
- Forest fires: Incident that occurs in those areas covered by vegetation, such as trees, grasslands, weeds and bushes and in general – in any of the different types of plant associations – when the conditions are conducive to the action of the elements that concur in any fire, such as enough combustible material and a heat source to start the phenomenon. A large fire that destroys even what should not burn.
- Vandalism and urban disturbances: vandalism acts are defined as those actions that are perpetrated by one or more people and that consist of destroying and devastating everything in their path, while urban disturbances are considered as an armed conflict, for usually on public roads, where public order is altered through violence
- Terrorist attacks: an incident or attack of indiscriminate violence that is exerted on a specific population.
- Pollution: Presence in the environment, by human action, of any chemical substance, particulate objects, microorganisms, forms of energy or components of the urban or rural landscape, at levels or proportions that negatively alter the environment and/or threaten human health, animal or plant or ecosystems. The most common incidents are oil or sewage related pollution.
- Large concentrations and overflows: risk derived from the concentration and behavior of a large number of people in a limited space due to a certain activity, event or celebration
- Demonstrations and strikes: while demonstrations are defined as a public meeting, generally in the open air and in progress, in which those attending it demand something or express their protest about something, strikes are defined as a collective interruption of activity labour by the workers in order to claim certain conditions or manifest a protest.